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Hydrocarbon Resistant (HCR) Series Products

Hydrocarbon Resistant Oxygen Sensors (HCR Series)

FMI has developed a proprietary chemical coating, based on organically-modified sol-gel technology (ORMOSIL) that is used as an oxygen optical transducer in combination with optical fiber waveguides.

The new oxygen sensor from FMI is designed to monitor oxygen gas as well as dissolved oxygen (DO) in organic hydrocarbons, fuels, pure solvents such as acetone, BTX, etc… The HCR series oxygen sensor comes in a range of probe and patches.

Our HCR probes and patches have been tested successfully in different environments such as

  • Kerosene
  • Toluene
  • Acetone
  • BTX
  • UV Curable Ink
  • Divinylbenzene (DVB)
  • Methyl methacrylate (MMA)
You can read more about the compatibility testing of our HCR products done in different harsh chemical environments here.

Why monitor dissolved oxygen in fuels?

• Chemicals, and in particular, hydrocarbon mixtures, that are stored for extended periods of time, in the presence of contaminants, accumulate deposits that are detrimental to the equipment through which the chemicals flow. In particular, fuels that often sit in storage containment units, such as tanks or shipping vessels, are usually hydrocarbon mixtures. Contaminants in the fuels can bring about some polymerization or the creation of gums, which can impair engine performance due to contaminant deposits that diminish flow or heat transfer characteristics.

• An important contaminant is oxygen. Oxygen contaminants lead to undesirable chemical products by a variety of reaction processes. These reactions include autocatalytic mechanisms that include free radical chain reactions. Olefins in the presence of oxygenate contaminants can lead to polymerization of the olefin monomers and can lead to deposits of large polymeric molecules. Fouling causes increased maintenance of equipment and reduce operation times, and a loss of production.

• Monitoring and removal of oxygen and residual oxygen contaminants from hydrocarbon feedstocks can reduce the down times and protect equipment from excessive fouling due to deposits created from reactions by the presence of oxygen in the hydrocarbon feedstocks.


  •     Sensor Principle: Proprietary sol-gel ceramic thin film coating
  •     Compatible with hydrocarbon products
  •     Works in
                – Organic solvents such as toluene, acetone, and alcohol
                – Aviation fuels
                – Oil products such as gasoline and diesel fuels
  •     Oil industry, refineries, fuel processing
  •     Works up to 200 C
  •     Extremely stable
                 (1% oxygen drift per year – hourly sampling rate )

AP (Zero Drift) HCR Hydrocarbon Grade) MR (Sol Gel)
Zero Drift, No moisture interference, highly stable Hydrocarbon compatible (fuels, organic solvent, alcohols) Sol gel matrix, moisture resistant, high temperature performance, medical applications
Optical Sensors Commercial Electrodes
Low maintenance High maintenance
Life span of at least 1 year The general electrode’s life span is around 3 months
O2 sensors do not consume oxygen, which makes continuous contact with samples possible O2 electrodes consume oxygen at rates of ~0.1 micrograms/hour
Immune to salinity, pH and ionic strength changes of environment Salinity, pH change, and ionic strength all have the ability to affect the electrode
Simpler and less frequent calibration Hourly recalibrations can be required for electrodes
Sensor coating formulations are offered for a wide range of environments Electrodes are generally not compatible with various chemicals
Optical sensors are highly specific and are not affected by chemicals imposed by environment such as CO2, organics, moisture, etc.. Interference from various chemicals and sampling conditions is commonly experienced
Ease of production enables manufacturing flexible sensors form factors such as probes, patches, cuvettes, etc.. Generally, electrodes are solely offered in probe or cell membrane format
Sensor transducers can be applied on flexible patches and placed inside biological reactors for non-invasive optical measurements Electrodes normally do not lend themselves to non-invasive measurements

AP formulation (polymer) HCR formulation (sol gel) MR formulation (sol gel)
Response rate of probes T90 = 3 seconds T90 = 1 second T90 = 1 second
Response rate of patches T90 = 0.1-0.3 seconds T90 = 0.1-0.2 seconds T90 = 0.1-0.2 seconds
Dynamic range in gas 0-100% O2/0-760 mmHg O2 0-100% O2/0-760 mmHg O2 0-100% O2/0-760 mmHg O2
Dynamic range in water (DO) 0-40 ppm (wt) 0-40 ppm (wt) 0-40 ppm (wt)
Dynamic range in other liquids 0-oxygen saturation level 0-oxygen saturation level 0-oxygen saturation level
Resolution in gas 0.005% O2 / 0.04 mmHg 0.05% O2 / 0.4 mmHg 0.05% O2 / 0.4 mmHg
Resolution in water (DO) 0.002 ppm (wt) / 2.0 ppb (wt) 0.02 ppm (wt) / 20 ppb (wt) 0.02 ppm (wt) / 20 ppb (wt)
Resolution in other liquids 0.005% of oxygen saturation level 0.05% of oxygen saturation level 0.05% of oxygen saturation level
Accuracy 5% of reading 5% of reading 5% of reading
Lowest detectable level (gas) 0.005% O2 / 0.04 mmHg 0.05 % O2 / 0.4 mmHg 0.05 % O2 / 0.4 mmHg
Lowest detectable level (water) 0.002 ppm (wt) / 2.0 ppb (wt) 0.02 ppm (wt) / 20 ppb (wt) 0.02 ppm (wt) / 20 ppb (wt)
Lowest detectable level in other liquids 0.005% of oxygen saturation level 0.05% of oxygen saturation level 0.05% of oxygen saturation level
Sensor drift Zero drift long term continuous operation 0.0001 O2% per hour 0.0001 O2% per hour
Operating temperature -50 to + 100 C -50 to + 120 -50 to + 120
Probe lifetime 1 year before refurbishing 1 year before refurbishing 1 year before refurbishing
AP Formulation HCR Formulation
Designed for monitoring oxygen gas and dissolved oxygen in biological environments. Designed for monitoring oxygen in environments with aggressive chemicals such as pure acetone, toluene, benzene, alcohols, gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, etc..
H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide at 30%)
  • Ethylene Oxide - 480 mg/L/45 Celsius/50%/ 2 Hours (all formulations)
  • Autoclave (only HCR and MR formulations)

  • Available Options

    Our oxygen sensor stainless steel probes with an embedded thermistor are designed for monitoring of..

    Hydrocarbon resistant glass oxygen sensor patch for non-invasive monitoring of dissolved oxygen in H..

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